▹ CE and UL-listed

The CE Label
The letters CE on a zangra product indicate that the product meets the European Union's safety standards and other requirements for sale.
The product meets the standards for it to be sold in the European Union (plus Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Iceland). It represents the French phrase "Conformité Européenne", which indicates conformity with European law.
The CE label is required by law in order to show that the product meets European health, safety and environmental standards.
This certification is generally not recognized in the United States, which has its own certification standards of product safety (UL-listed).

The UL Seal
When you see the UL seal on a zangra product, you'll know that the product has been certified to meet the standards of "Underwriters Laboratories", a private safety organization.
While the organization's approval isn't a legal requirement, many regulators in the United States require that electrical products be tested by a nationally-recognized testing laboratory before they're used, and UL is the oldest and probably the best known.
For fire safety, many home insurance policies require that electrical products installed in the home be UL-certified.


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▹ E26 versus E27

E26 vs E27, what's the difference?

E26 stands for 26 mm and the E27 for 27 mm in diameter.
These two standards are interchangeable, meaning a US E26 will fit in a European E27 base, and E27 will fit in a E26 base. The only difference is the voltage (for light bulbs).
In fact there is only 1 mm difference between the threads of E26 and E27, so they are virtually identical. Still, it's important to buy the correct bulb certified for use in your country. This is because each country and region of the world have different certifications.

An easy reference for which light bulb type is used in major markets is as follows:

Here is a complete list of countries with the type of standard Edison Screw used.

The following countries use E26 bulbs
Anguilla, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Canada, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Japan, Libya, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Taiwan, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Venezuela and British Virgin Islands.

The following countries use E27 bulbs
Afghanistan, Aland Islands, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia And Herzegovina, Botswana, Bouvet Island, Brazil, British Indian Ocean Territory, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Comoros, Congo, The Democratic Republic Of The Congo, Cook Islands, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), Faroe Islands, Fiji, Finland, France, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Heard Island And Mcdonald Islands, Holy See (Vatican City State), Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic Of Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Isle Of Man, Israel, Italy, Jersey, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Korea, Kosovo, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao, Macedonia, The Republic Of, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Republic of Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestinian Territory, Occupied, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Reunion, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts And Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre And Miquelon, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome And Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, St. Vincent, Sudan, Suriname, Svalbard And Jan Mayen, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, (United Republic Of) Tanzania, Thailand, Timor Leste, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Turks And Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis And Futuna, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

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▹ damp-rated lights for bathroom

Great care needs to be taken when choosing bathroom lighting, as the regulations concerning the type of light you can use are strict.
It is important to understand the rating by which bathroom and outdoor lights are classified. IP-rating stands for “Ingress Protection”. The higher the number, the better the protection level will be.

IP20 – not protected
IP21 – protected against dripping water
IP23 – protected against spraying water
IP44 – protected against splashing water
IP55 – protected against water jets
IP66 – protected against heavy seas
IP67 – protected against the effects of immersion
IP68 – protected against the effects of submersion

See zangra’s section of IP44+ and outdoor lighting »here«

The drawing below shows a bathroom split into different zones.
The requirements for each area depend mainly upon the risk of water getting close to the electrical supply.

Zone 0 min. IP 65
Zone 1 min. IP 45
Zone 2 min. IP 44
Zone 3 (anywhere outside zones 0, 1 and 2): There are no special IP-requirements in this zone.

TIP: just above the shower we advise you to use an IP65 because the lighting here could come in direct contact with water.
It is recommendable to install sockets only in zone number 3.

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▹ dimmable or non-dimmable?

Is my light fixture dimmable?
What makes a light fixture dimmable is the dimmer controlling it and the light bulb. So it is the light bulb that determines whether you can dim or not (and not the fixture).
It’s important that the dimmer matches up to the light bulb technology in order for it to work properly, because not all bulbs are dimmable, and not all dimmers dim all bulbs.

These are the most common light sources:
* halogen bulbs (dimmable)
* incandescent bulbs (dimmable)
* energy saving lamps (non-dimmable)
* LED lamps (there are dimmable and non-dimmable LED bulbs)

Can you dim any LED bulb?
In a word, no. Dimmable LED bulbs and their non-dimmable counterparts use entirely different componentry, so putting a non-dimmable bulb on a dimmable circuit will not work. This isn’t true of the reverse though; a dimmable bulb will work just fine on a non-dimmable circuit, it just won’t dim…
LEDs that are dimmable are typically labeled as such on the box. If it isn't labeled as dimmable, it's safe to assume it isn’t.
Use only dimmers designed for LED to dim LED light bulbs!
Please note that dimmable LED lamps currently have a lower dimming range than a filament lamp. LEDs currently dim down to about 10% of the total light output whereas filaments may go down to 1-2%.

Your light bulbs flicker and hum? Your light bulbs are not dimming correctly?
That does not mean that the LED bulbs are defective or that the dimmer is broken!
How is this possible?
- a non-dimmable lamp is used. (non-dimmable bulbs will NOT work in dimming circuits)
- the dimmer is not designed for LED lamps (use only a compatible dimmer)
- the power load of the LED lamp is below the minimum required by the dimmer.
- the dimmer is incompatible with the LED lamp technology
- different type of LED lamps are used in the same dimming circuit. The dimmer probably won’t be capable of providing a common signal to each light source. (Ensure that all your bulbs are of the same type and from the same manufacturer).

Can dimmable LED lighting be controlled using a standard dimmer?
Standard dimmers will be underloaded in most LED applications, exacerbating flickering and strobing effects, which, in turn, can drastically shorten lamp life. Standard dimmers are also not equipped to exploit the full brightness range, resulting in a disappointing user experience. Standard dimmers are made to work in high-power circuits and have a mechanism that allows them to dim light from a traditional filament by altering the voltage. But LED lamps have a different functionality. They operate in much lower voltages. So use only dimmers designed for LED lamps, because the dimmers for halogen and incandescent light bulbs cannot ‘read’ the low loading of a LED lamp.

How to select the proper dimmer for LED bulbs?
There are numerous types of dimmer switch available, but by far the most popular are leading edge and trailing edge phase-cut dimmers. Without getting too technical, traditional leading-edge dimmers are designed specifically for high-power circuits and dimming traditional filament bulbs where a variation in voltage is required. Dimming LED bulbs is a lot more complicated, particularly considering the inclusion of an LED driver in the design. Most LED bulbs require a trailing-edge mechanism to work effectively. Traditional dimmer switches are designed to work on lighting circuits with a high load. In a lot of cases LED bulbs won't work with traditional dimmer switches because the load on the circuit is not high enough to meet the minimum load on the dimmer switch. A typical trailing edge dimmer has a minimum load of around 50-60 watts. This is fine when you're dimming 50 watt halogens, but not when you're using 6 watt LED bulbs. If the load on the circuit isn't high enough, the dimmer won't work. Newer, trailing-edge dimmer switches, are designed with a lower minimum load which helps address this problem.

The load can be calculated by taking the wattage of each bulb and multiplying it by the number of bulbs on the circuit. For example, if you have 10 bulbs, 5 watts each, the load on the circuit will be 50 watts.

Can dimming LED lamps save more energy?
Yes!  Dimmed LED lights mean a reduction in energy consumption.

Which dimmers does zangra sell?
»Here« you can find our full range of dimmers.


▹ appliance classes

In the electrical appliance manufacturing industry, the following protection classes are defined and used to differentiate between the protective-earth connection requirements of devices.

Class I

These appliances must be connected to electrical earth (US: ground) by a separate earth conductor (green/yellow colour in most countries, green in the US, Canada and Japan). Earthing is achieved through a 3-core mains cable. The basic requirement is that no single fault can result in exposure to dangerous voltage which may cause an electric shock, and that, in the event of a problem, the power will automatically switch off.

Class II

A Class II or double insulated electrical appliance is one which has been designed in such a way that it does not require a safety connection to electrical earth (ground).
The basic requirement is that no single fault can result in exposure to dangerous voltage which may cause an electric shock, and that this is achieved without relying on an earthed metal casing. This is usually achieved at least in part by having at least two layers of insulating material between live parts and the user, or by using reinforced insulation.
In Europe, a double insulated appliance must be labelled Class II or double insulated or bear the double insulation symbol (a square inside another square).